The world ‘Zawar’ is derived from jewerat, an Arabian term means Jewellery. It was an industrial city based in mining activities. Galena (lead and silver) and sphalerite (zinc and cadmium) are richly deposited here. The productive mines of the city have been going on for last 3000 years. But Zawar got an international recognition for inventing a smelting process which is know as "reverse distilliton process" for obtaining a volatile metals like zinc. It was the biggest Indian contribution to the world archaeometallurgy. Freestone has estimated that one lakh ton of metallic zinc was produced from 14th to 18th century CE in Zawar. And a big chunk of metallic zinc was exported to European nations where brass was made by adding zinc into copper. And the brass was used in making of instruments which became the forerunner of industrial revolution in Europe. The book is compiled into six chapters to cover the different aspects to history of Zawar. It includes geography and societal dimension, inscriptions, temples and sculptures, mining and smellting, chronology and contribution of zawar. It is concluded with appendixes like mythology, pothi of Audichya Brahmins, land records for temples and useful photographs.
History of Zawar: Temple Architecture and Zinc Smelting
by Arvind Kumar
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR Arvind Kumar
Dr. Arvind Kumar (b. 23-03-1953), University Professor, Department of Zoology, S.K. University, Dumka has 24 years' experience as an outstanding teacher and researcher. He is a recipient of National Merit Scholarship all through his college and university years and got meritorial fellowship of CSIR, New Delhi. He has been awarded Professor W.A. Nizami Gold Medal by the Zoological Society of India in 2000during 11th annual Congress. He did his M. Sc. In Zoology in 1976 and Ph.D. in 1982 on Eco-Physiology of Aquatic Insect from Bhagalpur University. He has done pioneering work in the field of limnology, aquatic insect ecology, biodiversity, conservation and tribal ecology. Dr. Kumar has successfully guided more than 11 research scholars for Ph.D. and got more than 205 research articles and reviews published in reputed national and international journals. He has authored/ edited more than 15 books and is also on the Editorial Board of more than a dozen esteemed national and international journal. Dr Kumar is a fellow, life-member and member of number of organizations and is also working as office bearer of some of them. Dr. Kumar has charied a number of sessions of different seminars/ symposia. He was also made convener of the National Symposium organized by S.K. University in 1998. He has been invited to different Universities, such as, University of Madras, Chennai, Dr. R.M.L. Avadh University, Faizabad, etc. to deliver lectures' on different topics of Environmental Sciences. Presently, Dr. Kumar is the Charman of Board of Environment Impact Assessment & Ecoplanning, Jharkhand, President of Tribal Ecoconservation Society ad Secretary General of Society of Environmental Sciences. He is also the Chief Editor of Journal of Current Sciences and the Editor of Indian Journal of Environment and Ecoplanning. Professor Kumar has visited Switzerland, France, Germany, Italy & Vienna in 2005 and China, Japan & Singapore in 2006 in order to deliver lectures during international symposia. He is a fellow, life member and member of number of organizations and is also working as office organizations and is also working as office bearer of some of them. Dr. Kumar has chaired a number of sessions of different seminars/symposia in India and abroad. He has been editing there international scientific journals at a time regularly since more than fifteen years and is Editor-in-Chief of The Ekologia , Chief Editor of Journal of Current Sciences & Editor of Indian Journal of Environment and Ecoplanning. Dr. Kumar is also the hon'ble member, Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board, Ranchi.
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